Abstract

A theory of Ruelle-Pollicott (RP) resonances for stochastic differential systems is presented. These resonances are defined as the eigenvalues of the generator (Kolmogorov operator) of a given stochastic system. By relying on the theory of Markov semigroups, decomposition formulas of correlation functions and power spectral densities (PSDs) in terms of
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RP resonances are then derived. These formulas describe, for a broad class of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), how the RP resonances characterize the decay of correlations as well as the signal's oscillatory components manifested by peaks in the PSD.It is then shown that a notion reduced RP resonances can be rigorously defined, as soon as the dynamics is partially observed within a reduced state space V . These reduced resonances are obtained from the spectral elements of reduced Markov operators acting on functions of the state space V , and can be estimated from series. They inform us about the spectral elements of some coarse-grained version of the SDE generator. When the time-lag at which the transitions are collected from partial observations in V , is either sufficiently small or large, it is shown that the reduced RP resonances approximate the (weak) RP resonances of the generator of the conditional expectation in V , i.e. the optimal reduced system in V obtained by averaging out the contribution of the unobserved variables. The approach is illustrated on a stochastic slow-fast system for which it is shown that the reduced RP resonances allow for a good reconstruction of the correlation functions and PSDs, even when the time-scale separation is weak.The companions articles, Part II and Part III, deal with further practical aspects of the theory presented in this contribution. One important byproduct consists of the diagnosis usefulness of stochastic dynamics that RP resonances provide. This is illustrated in the case of a stochastic Hopf bifurcation in Part II. There, it is shown that such a bifurcation has a clear manifestation in terms of a geometric organization of the RP resonances along discrete parabolas in the left half plane. Such geometric features formed by (reduced) RP resonances are extractable from time series and allow thus for providing an unambiguous "signature" of nonlinear oscillations embedded within a stochastic background. By relying then on the theory of reduced RP resonances presented in this contribution, Part III addresses the question of detection and characterization of such oscillations in a high-dimensional stochastic system, namely the Cane-Zebiak model of El Ni{\~n}o-Southern Oscillation subject to noise modeling fast atmospheric fluctuations.
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