Abstract

Just a couple decades ago bosonic low-temperature physics was synonymous with one particular liquid at a temperature of several degrees Kelvin. This liquid, helium-4, and its famous Helium-II phase, has revealed remarkable quantum properties such as quantized vortices and second sound. Yet, despite many things learned by investigating helium, its
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study has certain limitations. On the one hand, helium is a strongly interacting liquid, which makes first-principles theoretical research challenging. To name one example, establishing a connection between the non-interacting condensate state described by Bose and Einstein, and the helium properties observed in the lab took decades. Furthermore, helium is a specific chemical element, and hence there is no surprise that its physical properties are fixed by nature. However, every particular chemical element has particular physical properties, so for a long time it seemed that it was as good as it gets. The picture has changed drastically when the first Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) was observed in an ultracold atomic gas. “Low temperature” has become synonymous with “ultracold”, and the latter implies temperatures on the order of nanokelvins. Most strikingly, the relationship between what is fixed by nature and what is experimentally changeable has evolved. In particular, systems of different particle statistics, spin, and interactions have been engineered using ultracold vapours of various alkali atoms. This versatile manipulation not only makes emulating various condensed-matter physics models in a controlled system without impurities possible, but also opens a path towards novel phenomena that are at present not achievable in any other manner. In this thesis, we have explored some of the novel phenomena that arise in systems of bosonic particles with internal degrees of freedom, such as (pseudo)spin and electric dipole moment. In the introduction, we describe a ferromagnetically coupled spin-1/2 Bose gas with contact interactions in the mean- field approximation. In particular, we compute and discuss the phase diagram of this gas, since it is a simple system which nevertheless has two order parameters. In the chapters that follow, the ideas touched upon in the introduction are developed in more detail. In Chapter 2 we develop a hydrodynamic description of the ferromagnetic spin-1/2 Bose gas at arbitrary temperatures. We study magnetization relaxation and geometric forces. In particular, we consider the topological Hall effect due to the presence of a skyrmion. In Chapter 3 we investigate the miscible (non-ferromagnetic) spin-1/2 Bose gas at arbitrary temperatures, construct its hydrodynamic description, calculate the thermodynamic properties, and study the collective modes of this system. In Chapter 4 we discuss the influence of the off-diagonal Berry curvature on the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature. Finally, in Chapter 5 we study a Bose-Einstein condensate of dipolar molecules in a weak electric field and find it to be described by a quantum rotor model. Moreover, we show that the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate is a ferroelectric material that is fully disordered by quantum fluctuations.
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