Abstract

In this thesis, we study two-component Fermi mixtures in the presence of both a mass and a population imbalance. For a large part we focus on the experimentally available 6Li-40K mixture and on the phase transitions that can occur in this mixture. In the first part of this thesis, we
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study the extremely polarized two-component Fermi gas with a mass imbalance in the strongly interacting regime. Specifically, we focus on the mixture of 6Li and 40K atoms. In this interaction regime spin polarons, i.e., dressed minority atoms, form. We consider the spectral function for the minority atoms, from which the lifetime and the effective mass of the spin polaron can be determined. Moreover, we predict the radio-frequency spectrum and the momentum distribution for the spin polarons for experiments with 6Li and 40K atoms. Subsequently we study the relaxation of the motion of the Fermi polaron due to spin drag. In the second part, we develop an accurate theory of resonantly interacting Fermi mixtures with both spin and mass imbalance. We consider Fermi mixtures with arbitrary mass imbalances, but focus in particular on the 6Li-40K mixture. We determine the phase diagram of the mixture for different interaction strengths that lie on the BCS side of the Feshbach resonance. We also determine the universal phase diagram at unitarity. We find for the mixtures with a sufficiently large mass imbalance, that includes the 6Li-40K mixture, a Lifshitz point in the universal phase diagram that signals an instability towards a supersolid phase. In the last part of the thesis, we show that the ultracold three-dimensional 6Li-40K mixture at unitarity can exhibit the highly exotic Larkin-Ovchinnikov superfluid phase. We determine the phase diagram for majorities of 40K atoms within mean-field theory taking the inhomogeneities of the fermion states into account exactly. We find two different inhomogeneous superfluid phases in mixtures with a majority of 40K atoms, namely the Larkin-Ovchinnikov (LO) phase with one inhomogeneous direction and a cubic phase (LO3) where three spatial translational symmetries are broken. We determine the transition between these two phases by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the superfluid LO phase. Subsequently, we calculate the atomic density modulation of the atoms in the LO phase and show that it is sufficiently large to be visible in experiment.
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